Thursday, January 30, 2014

Threat of Reemergence of Tuberculosis Epidemic

Tuberculosis is one of the most deadly diseases caused by   bactery in the world. It has been an epidemic in all part of the world since hundreds years ago. It has killed millions people. But thank god, it has decreased due to the finding of the suitable antibiotic for M. tbc.  

But now, human poses a newly substantial threat by the reemergence of tuberculosis epidemic in the world. There are so many tuberculosis bactery  get resistant with regular antibiotic.  There are multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR).

MDR TB is defined as TB caused by M. Tbc that are resistant to two main drug of tuberculosis, isoniazid and rifampin. XDR TB is defined as MDR-TB plus resistance to a fluoroquinolone, and at least one second-line injectable agent (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).  MDR-TB is the main cause of failure in the treatment of TB category 1 by regimen that considered by the World Health Organization, in patients who are treated under strict observation.
You can guess what will happen when all cases of TB become MDR TB. Yes, tuberculosis will be very hard to treat. Human will need the newly regimen of treatment. Discovery of new drug is very costly. And it doesn’t always result the real new drug. MDR-TB requires prolonged therapy  with some new combination with second-line anti TB drugs. Many of them are less effective, more toxic, and more expensive than first-line drugs.
What happens when TB is hard to treat? Like I said before, we will pose a new threat of the reemergence of tuberculosis epidemic.  Tuberculosis is highly contagious will support the likelihood of the occurrence.  In the past it has killed million people. Currently, nearly half a million cases of MDR-TB emerge every year in the world due to the improper treatment of TB patient.  WHO reported, in 2008, the global mean rate of MDR was 2,9 % among new patients and 15,3 % among previously treated patients.

Written by : dr. Amrizal Muchtar

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